Charles I went to be crowned in Scotland which was separated from
England by Constitution and Government, although it had the same
King. The ceremony of Coronation was carried out by Scottish Bishops,
a few of which had been re-established by James I. A New History
of Great Britain, RB Mowat, page 321.
Charles I gave a grant of land in America to Lord Baltimore, this
later became known as Maryland. A New History of Great Britain,
RB Mowat, page 402.
The chief nobles and gentry and Presbyterian clergy of Scotland
signed the "National Covenant". This declared the worship of the
Reformed Kirk of Scotland to be the true worship of the country,
and that none other should be recognized there. The King regarded
this as defiance and marched North to confront the Scots. However,
when he saw the Covenanters' army drawn up at Dunse Law, he recognized
his hopeless military position and signed the Treaty of Berwick,
promising the Scots that they could settle their own religion. A
New History of Great Britain, RB Mowat, page 321.
Charles I signed Treaty of Ripon, having marched North a second
time to confront the Scots, this time over their abolition of the
episcopacy. However, once again he had to back away from conflict
and had to agree that the Scots Army could remain under arms at
the King's expense, until the religious question should be settled.
A New History of Great Britain, RB Mowat, page 324.
Solemn League and Covenant made by the Roundhead Parliamentarians
and the Scots, with their fine army, promising in return for military
support to reform religion in England according to "the word of
God and the example of the best reformed churches". This was just
before the famous victory at Marston Moor. A New History of Great
Britain, RB Mowat, page 346.
During the period of unrest between the King and Parliament, not
all the Scots had fought on the side of Parliament. Throughout 1645
James Graham, Marquis of Montrose, had been fighting for Charles
with brilliant success in the Highlands of Scotland. The loyal and
martial Highlanders fought for him with the same enterprise and
vigour with which they fought, a hundred years later, for Prince
Charles. It was the Scots in the end to whom Charles turned when
all was lost and there followed a period of negotiation with him
and the Parliamentarians which over a twelve month period came to
nothing. He went to Hampton Court but continued to prevaricate on
the question as to whether there should be complete liberty of worship
for Presbyterians. Eventually he fled to the Isle of Wight and was
placed in Carrisbroke Castle under arrest. A New History of Great
Britain, RB Mowat, page 356.
The King, being overconfident to the last, rejected moderate proposals
from the Army leaders for change and began secret negotiations with
the Scots. They regretted now that they had handed him over to parliament
and this led to the so called "second civil war" in which the Scots
were severely beaten by Cromwell. Zierer/Mountfield History of
By the time Charles I was executed, he had become entirely alienated
from Parliament and also most of the English people. During the
last ten years of his reign, the English civil War had taken place.
Zierer/Mountfield History of England p70.
After the death of Charles I, the fury of the Scots broke out in
war again. They had the young Charles with them (afterwards Charles
II) and they made him a "covenanted King", a king that is to say,
who would rule on condition of maintaining the the National Covenant
for preserving the Presbyterian Church. Cromwell retaliated by occupying
Edinburgh and defeating them at Dunbar. A New History of Great
Britain, RB Mowat, page 356.