Charles and the Scots briefly invaded England once more, to be defeated
comprehensively at the Battle of Worcester again by Cromwell. A
New History of Great Britain, RB Mowat, page 356.
The nation had become ungovernable and so Cromwell became King in
all but name, being called Lord Protector. Zierer/Mountfield
History of England p70.
Following "Propaganda Fide" in 1622, support from the Irish Franciscans
came, to be followed by Vincentians and Dominicians. Secular support
finally came with the establishment of a Scottish Mission by Rome
in 1653. The majority of the counter-Reformation Catholic population
were clearly discernable with two thirds being in the Highlands,
especially such places as Knoydart, Moidart, Arisaig, Morar and
Lochaber. Eighteenth Century Scotland, New Perspectives, TM Devine
and JR Young, page 94, Essay by James F McMillan
In Scotland the Presbyterian influence continued strongly. The Scottish
Parliament passed an Act of Sabbatarianism, forbidding anyone to
enter taverns, dance, hear profane music, wash, brew ale, bake bread,
profanely walk or travel or to do any other worldly business on
a Sunday. However this was not widely observed in the Highlands
where ministers ignored the General Assembly and continued to go
around gaily dressed in plaids and drinking with their parishioners,
even in Covenanting times. TC Smout, A History of the Scottish
People 1560-1830, pages 85/6. A crucial point to realise
is that in Scotland, as in England, by the mid-seventeenth century
at the latest, the Scottish Catholic community was not the rump
of a medieval Scottish Christianity which had somehow survived the
Reformation unscathed but an altogether new, small and expanding
body shaped by the ideals of the Counter-Reformation. Eighteenth
Century Scotland, New Perspectives, TM Devine and JR Young, page
92, Essay by James F McMillan
John of Moidart carried out a raid on Skye on the property of Martin
Macpherson, Protestant Minister. He carried away 54 cows, 80 sheep
and 13 horses. Moidart Among the Clanranalds p69 Charles MacDonald,
Ed John Watts.
Cromwell, who had ruled from 1651 as Lord Protector, died in 1658
being succeeded by his unambitious son, who faded rapidly from the
scene and went to live for a while in France. The country to some
extent was ungoverned for a while and clearly public sentiment was
in favour of reverting to a single leader. Zierer/Mountfield
History of England p70 .
Charles II had been standing in the wings abroad since the death
of his father eleven years previously. General Monk, commander of
the Commonwealth soldiers in Scotland, precipitated the action.
He marched with 7,000 men from Scotland to London without resistance.
Charles II, at Breda in the Netherlands issued a Declaration to
the British people and shortly afterwards landed at Dover. A
New History of Great Britain, RB Mowat, page 368.
1660 Samuel Pepys accompanied Charles II on the Naseby (Rechristened
Charles) from Holland, 23rd May. Samuel Pepys, The Man in the
Making, Arthur Bryant, page113
Charles II founded Carolina by charter. A New History of Great
Britain, RB Mowat, page 403.
Hudsons Bay Company founded by Prince Rupert.A New History of
Great Britain, RB Mowat, page 403.