Charles II's brother was James, later James II. Whilst Administrator
Of Scotland (where he succeeded his nephew Monmouth) James was the
victor over the Covenanters at Bothwell Bridge. He had showed himself
to be terrible to Presbyterian dissenters. Subsequently as King,
he allowed Dame Alice Leslie, who had given shelter to a rebel,
to be beheaded for treason. A New History of Great Britain, RB
Mowat, page 394.
Special Commission for pacifying Highlands goes on tour. Glencoe,
John Prebble, page 304.
"Ewan MacDougall VicInnes in Ulgary, died Nov 1684 and owned 51
'great cows' valued at £680, four entering cows, six two year olds,
ten stirks, a stot, a mare with two followers, four bools of victual,
sheep and goats worth four cows and utensils valued at £18" Glenmoidart
Notes, Bonnalie/Impey Papers Ref 16
"Finwell Nein Dugald VcIan VcRury in Inshrory died July 1684 and
had 15 great cows, etc" Glenmoidart Notes, Bonnalie/Impey Papers
This was the last year of Charles II reign. He died without legitimate
issue. He had hoped to keep his younger brother James from inheriting,
believing he was a hothead lacking common sense. However duly James
II took the throne, making no secret of his Catholicism. He only
reigned for three years. Zierer/Mountfield History of England
Before 1688, some schools offered reading writing and religion;
but unfortunately this was all done in an unknown tongue, instructing
the children who did not understand English by teachers who did
not know Gaelic. After this date, more effective measures were introduced
to spread education to remote districts by the Society for the Propagation
of Christian Knowledge. The Social Life of Scotland in the Eighteenth
Century. H Grey Graham. Page 422.
1688 Not only was James II Catholic, but he had just produced
a son and heir, which greatly alarmed the people. He had for some
time been breaking the Constitutional laws introduced after the
Reformation and had been forcing institutions such as the army,
the church and the great universities to accept Catholic heads and
the country took fright, turning to his older daughter Mary, married
already to William of Orange (since 1677). William landed at Torquay
and marched virtually unopposed to London. He and Mary, both stout
Protestants were persuaded to take the throne jointly and James
went into exile in France. This is sometimes referred to as the
Peaceful Revolution. This established constitutional monarchy in
England and Scotland, and although one sovereign ruled over both,
the two countries had retained their separate governments and the
sovereign might have to accept one kind of advice from the Government
of England and another sort from Scotland.Zierer/Mountfield History
of England p70 and A New History of Great Britain, RB Mowat, page
406 and page 434.
Establishment of the Church of Scotland. TC Smout, A History
of the Scottish People 1560-1830, page212.
Maighstear Alasdair graduated at Glasgow University in 1674 and
came to Dalilea as Minister for Ardnamurchan in about 1688. His
wife was a MacLachlan, probably from Glencrepiscule. Their son was
the Bard. St Finan's Isle, Its Story by Alastair Cameron (North
Argyll), page 9 - Jean Cameron and Bonnalie/Impey Papers, Ref 38
Presbyterianism was re-established following the installation of
William and Mary. This was instead of Episcopacy, which had been
in its place since 1662. In practice however, only about two thirds
of the clergy (600 out of 900) were replaced, the remaining Episcopalian
incumbents continuing through "the affection of the people
or the favour of the gentry". There were in reality few differences
in worship between the two hostile persuasions. The Social Life
of Scotland in the Eighteenth Century. H Grey Graham. Page 271.
1689 William and Mary proclaimed King and Queen of Scotland,
but Battle of Killicrankie saw Jacobite clan chiefs enter a bond
to support James II as their true liege. James II then turned towards
Ireland where he went from France to put himself at the head of
the Catholic Irish. However after two years of skirmishing and seiging
by Catholics of Protestant towns such as Londonderry (1689) and
Enniskillen, the Irish were comprehensively defeated by William
at Battle of the Boyne in 1690.This seemed to settle the question
for the time being. Glencoe, John Prebble p305 and A New
History of Great Britain, RB Mowat, page 407.
After the defeat at Killicrankie, Alan Macdonald, chief of Clanranald,
fled to France, where he remained until1696. Upon his return, he
found his estates intact and not forfeited because his cousin, Donald
of Benbecula had, through negotiations with friends who carried
authority in government, been able to preserve Clanranald lands.
Castle Tioram, Christian Aikman, page 16.
Scottish population about one million (compared with over five million
currently), of which 25% in the Highlands (compared with 7% currently).
TC Smout, A History of the Scottish People 1560-1830, page 119.
Note: expressed in people rather than percentages, the Highland
population seems to have been 250,000 in 1690 and 280,000 now.
Jacobite clan chiefs required to take oath of allegiance to William.
Glencoe, John Prebble p306.
MacDonalds in Glencoe massacred for not complying with oath in time.
Glencoe, John Prebble p309. Captain Robert Campbell
received written orders from Major Robert Duncanson instructing
him "to fall upon the MacDonalds
..and to put all to the sword
under seventy". The slaughter began at dawn on Saturday 13 February.
Many escaped south over the hills to Appin. Glencoe and the Indians,
James Hunter, page 63
"Margaret MacLean at Kinlochuachdrach died leaving five cows, an
old mare, a firlot of corn and was described as 'extraordinarily
poor'" Glenmoidart Notes, Bonnalie/Impey Papers Ref 16
Alan Macdonald returned from exile in France and went to live in
South Uist (until he went in 1715 and met his death at Sherrifmuir).
Castle Tioram, Christian Aikman, page 18.
A series of poor harvests from 1695 to 1699, coupled with murrain
among cattle caused perhaps the heaviest famine mortality for a
century. TC Smout, A History of the Scottish People 1560-1830,
Unsuccessful attempt by the Scottish Government to found a colony
on the Isthmus of Darien was ascribed to a lack of sympathy on the
part of the English Government.A New History of Great Britain,
RB Mowat, page 434.
Eilean-Fhionnan, for some time Clanranald land in Moidart had on
it a family of sextons from about 1700 called Mc Gillivray. Moidart
Among the Clanranalds p 102 Charles MacDonald, Ed John Watts.
At about this time the Minister for Moidart was the well known
Rev Alexander Macdonald, father of the celebrated bard Alasdair
MacMhaighstir Alasdair. He resided at Dalelea and walked prodigious
distances to services at Kilchoan. Moidart Among the Clanranalds
p 118 Charles MacDonald, Ed John Watts.
By this date, cattle were a regular export from the Highlands. Crieff,
Stirling and Beauly were the main markets. Cattle could make about
ten miles a day and locally, taking Arisaig as the starting point
(looked at another way, it was the end of the road), overnight stops
would be Kinlochmoidart, Glenfinnan, Fassfern, Lochy etc. Gordon
Barr, Comann Eachdraidh Muideart.